Discover the Most Common Complications of GERD and How to Prevent Them

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is a common medical condition that affects many people worldwide. It’s characterized by the reflux of stomach acid into the esophagus, which can cause a series of uncomfortable symptoms such as heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing. Although GERD can be managed with lifestyle changes and medications, it can also lead to more serious complications if not properly treated.

It’s important to note that not all people with GERD will develop complications, but it’s crucial to be aware of the potential long-term consequences of this condition. 

6 Complications of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

Some of the most common complications of GERD include:


Inflammation of the esophageal lining due to stomach acid. This inflammation can be caused by stomach acid frequently backing up into the esophagus, which can lead to chest pain, difficulty swallowing, and discomfort when swallowing food. If left untreated, esophagitis can cause permanent damage to the esophagus and increase the risk of developing other more serious complications.

Esophageal Stricture

Another potential complication of GERD is esophageal stricture, which is the narrowing of the esophagus due to damage caused by stomach acid. This stricture can make it difficult or painful to swallow solid or liquid foods and may cause a sensation of chest obstruction. In severe cases, esophageal stricture may require medical treatment or procedures to widen the esophagus and restore normal swallowing function.

Barrett’s Esophagus

Barrett’s esophagus is a serious complication of GERD that occurs when the lining of the esophagus is damaged and transformed into tissue similar to the lining of the small intestine. This change in tissue increases the risk of developing esophageal cancer in the future. If Barrett’s esophagus is suspected, it’s important to undergo additional tests, such as an endoscopy, to assess the risk of cancer and establish an appropriate treatment plan.

Pulmonary Aspiration

In severe cases of GERD, stomach acid that refluxes into the esophagus can reach the throat and mouth, and then be inhaled into the lungs. This can cause respiratory symptoms such as chronic cough, difficulty breathing, and aspiration pneumonia. Pulmonary aspiration is a serious complication that requires immediate medical attention and treatment to prevent further damage to the lungs and respiratory tract.

Esophageal Cancer

If GERD is left untreated for an extended period, there is an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer. Chronic inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining can increase the chances of abnormal cells becoming cancerous. It’s essential for GERD patients to follow an appropriate treatment plan and undergo regular screening tests to detect any signs of esophageal cancer at early stages.

You may also be interested in: Explore the Best Treatment Options for Gastroesophageal Reflux 

Dental Erosion

Stomach acid reaching the mouth due to reflux can cause erosion of dental enamel, increasing the risk of cavities and dental sensitivity. Regular dental care and neutral mouth rinses can help prevent this problem.

Timely treatment of GERD can prevent or minimize these complications. Lifestyle changes such as avoiding heavy meals before bedtime, maintaining a healthy weight, and elevating the head of the bed while sleeping can help reduce symptoms and prevent further damage. Additionally, medications and prescribed antacids can help control stomach acid production.

GERD can lead to potentially serious complications if not properly treated. However, with proper treatment and regular medical follow-up, it’s possible to prevent or minimize these complications. If you’re dealing with GERD or its complications, you’re not alone. Our medical team is here to provide you with the support and care you need to manage this condition effectively.

At Formé Medical Center, we have a team of specialists in gastroenterology and internal medicine who can help you manage GERD and its complications. Don’t hesitate to call us at 9147234900 or schedule a consultation to receive the care you need.